Jump to content



Photo

Exploding Volcanoes & Solar Minima


  • Please log in to reply
16 replies to this topic

#1 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 08 January 2013 - 10:21 AM

The potential impact of volcanic overprinting our solar minimum

A repeat of the climate experience of 1816 in the world’s temperate region grain belts would most likely result in almost all of the grain exporting countries ceasing exports in order to conserve grain for domestic consumption. The effect on countries currently importing grain would go beyond calamity to catastrophe.

When major eruptions are overprinted on a period of cold climate, the effect is severe. As John A. Eddy said in reference to the Mount Tambora eruption of 10th April, 1815, “The unusual summer of 1816 is commonly attributed to the increase in atmospheric turbidity that followed the eruption of Mount Tambora. The awesome eruption occurred, in fact, during a span of several decades of colder climate that had interrupted the gradual global warming that followed seventeenth century extrema of the Little Ice Age. These background trends may well explain a particularly severe seasonal response in 1816 to a short-term injection of volcanic dust.”

The effect of the Mount Tambora eruption is well documented in Europe. 1816 was a year of calamity for most of the continent. Spring saw heavy rains which were followed by snow in June and July that caused widespread harvest failures. Wheat yields in France, England and Ireland were at least 75 percent lower than at the beginning of that decade. Wholesale wheat and rye prices responded by roughly doubling in 1817 across the continent. The area affected the most was southern Germany where prices increased by three hundred percent by the period May to June of 1817. In Germany and Switzerland, people resorted to eating rats, cats, grass and straw as well as their own horses and watchdogs. This was the last great subsistence crisis of western civilisation.



http://climaterealis.....ts News Blog)

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#2 Rogerdodger

Rogerdodger

    Member

  • TT Member*
  • 24,423 posts

Posted 08 January 2013 - 11:57 AM

These could be life savers:

Stewed Dog Recipe (wedding style)

RATatouille Recipe

CATatouille Recipe

Posted Image

WARNING: Honey Badgers shouldn't be messed with!

Edited by Rogerdodger, 08 January 2013 - 12:03 PM.


#3 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 24 February 2013 - 12:50 PM

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) provides a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

Civilization exists by geological consent—subject to change without notice.—Will Durant

Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions

Volcanic eruptions can alter the climate of the earth for both short and longer periods of time. For example, average global temperatures dropped about 0.5 deg C for about two years after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, and low air temperatures caused crop failures and famine in North America and Europe for two years following the eruption of Tambora in 1815.

Only a single volcano with VEI at 6 or greater in the last 100 years

Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 6 1991

Four volcanoes with a VEI at 6 or greater the previous 100 years

Novarupta Aleutian Range 6 1912
Santa María Central America Volcanic Arc 6 1902
Krakatoa Sunda Arc 6 1883
Mount Tambora Lesser Sunda Islands 7 1815


http://en.wikipedia....plosivity_Index

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#4 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 06 March 2013 - 06:55 AM

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) provides a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

Civilization exists by geological consent—subject to change without notice.—Will Durant

Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions

Volcanic eruptions can alter the climate of the earth for both short and longer periods of time. For example, average global temperatures dropped about 0.5 deg C for about two years after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, and low air temperatures caused crop failures and famine in North America and Europe for two years following the eruption of Tambora in 1815.

Only a single volcano with VEI at 6 or greater in the last 100 years

Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 6 1991

Four volcanoes with a VEI at 6 or greater the previous 100 years

Novarupta Aleutian Range 6 1912
Santa María Central America Volcanic Arc 6 1902
Krakatoa Sunda Arc 6 1883
Mount Tambora Lesser Sunda Islands 7 1815


http://en.wikipedia....plosivity_Index


Novarupta - The Most Powerful Volcanic Eruption of the 20th Century


The morning of June 6th 1912 arrived on the Alaska peninsula to find the area which is now Katmai National Monument being shaken by numerous strong, shallow earthquakes. The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th Century was about to begin

An eruption the size of Novarupta would ground commercial jet traffic across the North American continent.

Large eruptions of Novarupta's scale at high latitudes can have a significant impact upon global climate. Recent studies have linked high latitude volcanic eruptions with altered surface temperature patterns and low rainfall levels in many parts of the world. The 1912 eruption of Novarupta and other Alaskan volcano eruptions have been linked with drought and temperature changes in northern Africa.


http://geology.com/novarupta/

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#5 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 20 March 2013 - 02:56 AM

How an Icelandic volcano helped spark the French Revolution

Profound effects of eight-month eruption in 1783 caused chaos from US to Egypt

Just over 200 years ago an Icelandic volcano erupted with catastrophic consequences for weather, agriculture and transport across the northern hemisphere – and helped trigger the French revolution.

The Laki volcanic fissure in southern Iceland erupted over an eight-month period from 8 June 1783 to February 1784, spewing lava and poisonous gases that devastated the island's agriculture, killing much of the livestock. It is estimated that perhapsa quarter of Iceland's population died through the ensuing famine.

Ships moored up in many ports, effectively fogbound. Crops were affected as the fall-out from the continuing eruption coincided with an abnormally hot summer. A clergyman, the Rev Sir John Cullum, wrote to the Royal Society that barley crops "became brown and withered … as did the leaves of the oats; the rye had the appearance of being mildewed".

Across the Atlantic, Benjamin Franklin wrote of "a constant fog over all Europe, and a great part of North America".


http://www.guardian....ench-revolution

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#6 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 19 July 2013 - 07:17 AM

How an Icelandic volcano helped spark the French Revolution

Profound effects of eight-month eruption in 1783 caused chaos from US to Egypt

Just over 200 years ago an Icelandic volcano erupted with catastrophic consequences for weather, agriculture and transport across the northern hemisphere – and helped trigger the French revolution.

It is estimated that 80 Mt of sulfuric acid aerosol was released by the eruption (4 times more than El Chichon and 80 times more than Mount St. Helens).

The climatic effects of the Laki eruption are impressive. In the eastern United States, the winter average temperature was 4.8 degrees C below the 225 year average. The estimate for the temperature decrease of the entire Northern Hemisphere is about 1 degree C. The The top graph shows change in acidity in micro equivalents H+ per kg in the Greenland icecap. The bottom graph represents the winter temperature records in the eastern United States. From Sigurdsson (1982).

In North America, the winter of 1784 was the longest and one of the coldest on record. It was the longest period of below-zero temperatures in New England, the largest accumulation of snow in New Jersey, and the longest freezing over of the Chesapeake Bay. There was ice skating in Charleston Harbor, a huge snowstorm hit the south, the Mississippi River froze at New Orleans, and there was ice in the Gulf of Mexico.

The Laki eruption illustrates that low energy, large volume, long duration basaltic eruptions can have climatic impacts greater than large volume explosive silica-rich eruptions. The sulfur contents of basaltic magmas are 10-100 times higher than silica-rich magmas (Palais and Sigurdsson, 1989). The sulfur dioxide is what forms the sulfate aerosols which reflect radiation.

How does sun play a role? I believe the sun drives the oceanic cycles which drive the weather. See the details of how here. Volcanism is the wildcard amplifier. See how the TSI as compiled by Hoyt/Schatten/Willson matches the ocean cycles and temperatures.

These are the major league players in our climate. CO2 didn’t make the team.

http://icecap.us/ind...levels_of_volc/

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#7 Rogerdodger

Rogerdodger

    Member

  • TT Member*
  • 24,423 posts

Posted 19 July 2013 - 09:32 AM

These are the major league players in our climate. CO2 didn’t make the team.


Well said. But how can you TAX people for volcanoes and sunshine? :lol:

#8 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 23 December 2013 - 06:26 PM

Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok Island-- the largest volcanic eruption in the last 3,700 years.

The previously unattributed eruption was an estimated eight times as large as the famed Krakatau explosion (1883) and twice as large as Tambora in 1815, the researchers estimate. "Until now we thought that Tambora was the largest eruption for 3,700 years," Lavigne said, but the study reveals that the 1257 event was even larger.

"There is a lot we don't know about volcanic eruptions, even what may seem like basic questions about some of these very big eruptions," said geologist Ben Andrews of the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program,

Though the eruption was equatorial, its impact was felt and noted around the world. "The climate was disturbed for at least two years after the eruption," Lavigne said. Evidence of this was found in studies of tree rings that revealed abnormal growth rates, climate models, and historical records from as far afield as Europe."

Medieval chronicles, for example, describe the summer of 1258 as unseasonably cold, with poor harvests and incessant rains that triggered destructive floods—a "year without a summer." The winter immediately following the eruption was warmer in western Europe, however, as would be expected from high-sulfur eruptions in the tropics.


http://news.national...stery-disaster/

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#9 stocks

stocks

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 3,507 posts

Posted 13 January 2014 - 04:04 PM

Decade Volcanoes

The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.

The following volcanoes were selected as the 16 current Decade Volcanoes:

Avachinsky-Koryaksky, Kamchatka, Russia
Colima, Jalisco and Colima, Mexico
Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy
Galeras, Nariño, Colombia
Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA
Mount Merapi, Central Java, Indonesia
Mount Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mount Rainier, Washington, USA
Sakurajima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan
Santa Maria/Santiaguito, Guatemala
Santorini, Cyclades, Greece
Taal Volcano, Batangas, Luzon, Philippines
Teide, Canary Islands, Spain
Ulawun, New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Mount Unzen, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
Vesuvius, Naples, Italy


http://en.wikipedia..../Decade_Volcano

--

 Show me a dangerous neighborhood full of crime, drugs, and thuggery and I'll show you a neighborhood full of single moms

 

 


#10 MaryAM

MaryAM

    Member

  • Traders-Talk User
  • 1,081 posts

Posted 05 February 2014 - 06:54 PM

Decade Volcanoes

The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.

The following volcanoes were selected as the 16 current Decade Volcanoes:

Avachinsky-Koryaksky, Kamchatka, Russia
Colima, Jalisco and Colima, Mexico
Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy
Galeras, Nariño, Colombia
Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA
Mount Merapi, Central Java, Indonesia
Mount Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mount Rainier, Washington, USA
Sakurajima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan
Santa Maria/Santiaguito, Guatemala
Santorini, Cyclades, Greece
Taal Volcano, Batangas, Luzon, Philippines
Teide, Canary Islands, Spain
Ulawun, New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Mount Unzen, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
Vesuvius, Naples, Italy


http://en.wikipedia..../Decade_Volcano


Don't forget the Late Permian/Early Triassic extinction level event caused by volcanic activity in what is now Russia (Americas were attached to Europe and Africa at that time)
Prior to that we went through the carboniferous period when the CO2 levels were estimated to be 25% of the earths atmosphere as compared to today and there was almost no ice caps - big mother global warming event. During this time the earth made lots and lots of trees and lots and lots of algae and lots and lots of foraminifira (big CO2 eaters making O2) that later became lots and lots of coal and oil.